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Acylations are far more commonly used in synthetic chemistry because multiple substitution is not a problem.
Raw Materials
substituted aromatics - alkylbenzenes, naphthalenes, phenols
acylating agents -acetyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, acyl anhydrides
Lewis acids - AlCl3, TiCl4, BF3
solvents - dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chlorobenzene and nitro-solvents
The products are intermediates or active ingredients for :
  • pharmaceuticals
  • agrochemicals
  • fragrances
  • flavours
  • fine chemicals


Draw a dot and cross diagram for AlCl3 and explain why it can behave as a Lewis acid.

  1. UK 15,000 tonnes per year
  2. UK Value at least £50 million per year
  3. World £1 billion per year

The introduction of a range of other groups onto aromatic rings is achieved using acid halides and anhydrides. A Lewis acid is needed to catalyse the reaction.