Uses of Biocatalysts; Brief History
How long have humans been deliberately applying biocatalysis?
Long before they even knew of the existence of microorganisms, cells and enzymes!
More than 3,700 enzymes have now been catalogued in a database. Several hundreds are available commercially.
It is common to use whole cells since this avoids extracting the fragile enzymes, and means that any necessary cofactors are in place.
Recombinant DNA techniques made genetic engineering possible.